While everyone is silently working on ICML submissions, I found this discussion about a fast physics simulator chip interesting from a learning viewpoint. In many cases, learning attempts to predict the outcome of physical processes. Access to a fast simulator for these processes might be quite helpful in predicting the outcome. Bayesian learning in particular may directly benefit while many other algorithms (like support vector machines) might have their speed greatly increased.
The biggest drawback is that writing software for these odd architectures is always difficult and time consuming, but a several-orders-of-magnitude speedup might make that worthwhile.